Who is Hyolmo?

Hyolmo is one of the 59 indigenous peoples recognized by Nepal government, residing in the Helambu region. They famously call themselves Yolmopa or Hyolmo. They have been residing in the region called Helambu, directly north of the Kathmandu valley, bordering with Tibet. The Hyolmo region is said to have found by prominent Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhav), during 8th century. They follow Buddhism. The term Hyolmo is made up of two words—‘Hyol’, which means a place or area which surrounded by majestic mountains and ‘Mo’ means a goddess. The meaning is that the community living in the region protected or preserved by Goddess namely Jyomo and Yangri. Yolmopa are animist and nature worshippers. Yolmopa have a distinct culture, rituals, customs and lifestyles.

Helambu and Tarkeghyang area in the north-west of Sindhupalchowk district, the east of Nuwakot district and in the south-east border of Rasuwa are the traditional homeland of Yolmo/Hyolmo. Hyolmo/Yolmos are also in Nuwakot and Dhading district primarily based in the hilly region. According to the latest national census 2011, the population of Hyolmo is 10,752.


Hyolmo indigenous peoples have their own mother tongue called Hyolmo language belongs to Tibeto-Burman language family. They use Sambota script which is alike a Tibetan script. According to the latest national census 2011, of their total 10,752 population 10,176 speak their mother tongue, which is 99 percent. Hyolmo language is spoken in as many as 11 districts across Nepal. Besides Nepal Hyolmo language is spoken in India and Bhutan as well.

Yolmo/Hyolmo language speaking countries:-

Besides Nepal, this language is spoken in India, Bhutan and Tibet.